“How can we measure the difference between a control signal and a half phase shift?”
When working with electronic amplifiers, the phase of an input signal might be shifted, which might introduce instability. And if this phase shift is greater than 180 degrees, then the system will be unstable. To standardize all measurements, electronics researchers have introduced the concept of a phase margin, or how far off from a 180-degree phase shift this new phase is. The phase margin can be calculated with the simple equation P_margin = |180-phase|.