Electric power systems
“What is the framework that powers our infrastructure?”
A great proportion of our modern infrastructure is contingent upon electricity for operation. However, what exactly is the fundamental framework behind all of it? Well, let’s take a close look. We know that we can simplify the course of electricity into 3 components: generation of power (through means such as solar panels and wind turbines), transmission of power (with means like HVDC), and distribution of power(using machines like transformers and grid tied inverters). If any framework has these three components, then it can be classified as an electric power system. The most famous example of an electric power system is the grid, which permeates nearly every aspect of our daily lives.
“When is the output unchanged from the input of a control block?”
In control systems, the output of a control block is usually modified from the input. However, when there is no change, the process is said to be in unity feedback
Closed-loop Summing Points
“What are the points on a control diagram for comparing the output and the setpoint?”
What makes a closed-loop control system truly closed loop is the comparison of the output and setpoint for making the error value. However, how is this represented on a control diagram? Well, Control Engineers like to use something called a Closed-loop Summing Point. Closed-loop Summing Points are small circular elements on a diagram that takes in an input on one quadrant, the setpoint on another and then produce the error term. Depending on the signs of the quadrant, the input value might be positive (for a + sign) or negative (for a – sign)