“How can we measure the disturbance between a setpoint and an output?”
When a closed loop control system sends an output, it must be compared to an initial setpoint. This process is known as tracking control and is one of the most fundamental parts of every control system
Closed-loop Control Systems
“How can we have a self-correcting control system?”
Open loop control systems may be affordable, but the lack of control over them (pun intended) makes them useful for only select applications. So how can we fix this problem? Well, what if every time our system was to produce an output, we compare it to our setpoint, and then modify the process to achieve our desired result accordingly? This is the fundamental idea behind a closed-loop control system and is used in a vast array of controls applications from electric vehicle battery life monitoring to drones and even laundry machine monitoring.
“What is the amplification of a controls system?”
When a signal passes through a transfer function, its output will be modified in an according way depending on its frequency. So what do we call the change of magnitude of the signal? Well, after much debate, controls researchers have settled on the idea of gain to describe this. Gain is defined as the ratio of the new magnitude to the old magnitude, such that a system that is twice as large will have a magnitude of 2 and half the size would be 1/2