Why Is Bronze Harder Than Stone?
“Why is bronze stronger than stone?”
The transition from stone to bronze marked humanity’s transition from the caves to civilization. This was brought by the ability to use this stronger material allowed for the creation of more complex machinery and structure. But what makes bronze stronger than stone? Well, it all comes down to the fact that it has a more compact molecular structure, giving it more strength! This is Why Bronze Is Harder Than Stone.
How Urban Sprawl Can Lead to Flooding Vulnerabilities
“How can urban sprawl lead to flooding vulnerabilities?”
Urban sprawl is infamous for causing an untold amount of problems in cities. When cement is poured over floodplains, the local area loses its water absorption capacity and becomes more prone to runoffs and flash floods. An example of this was the massive damage inflicted upon the city of Houston in late 2017 from Hurricane Maria, much of it exacerbated from its urban sprawl. This is How Urban Sprawl Can Lead to Flooding Vulnerabilities.
Sea-Level Rise and Urban Planning
“Why does sea-level rise need to be included in urban planning?”
Sea-level rise from climate change is becoming an increasing concern for urban planners and officials. Because of this, all new urban designs must factor in how their plans will adapt to sea-level rise, whether it be using seawalls or sponge cities. This is how Sea-Level Rise and Urban Planning are connected.
Image credit http://www.wlrn.org
How Climate Migration Can Impact Housing Affordability
“How can climate migration impact housing affordability?”
More and more people are leaving their long-held homes in response to climate stress. These people often move to nearby areas en-masse. Often times these new places do not have enough housing stock to accommodate the new arrivals, resulting in a market pinch, increasing the cost of living dramatically. For this reason, climate-safe areas will need to vastly increase their housing stock to accommodate future residents. This How Climate Migration Can Impact Housing Affordability.
“How can we build communities resilient to wildfires?”
Climate change is causing wildfires to become more frequent and deadly. However, communities in the Wildland-Urban Interface and build and grow to adapt to this, whether it be creating defensible spaces, using strict fire-hardening building codes, and having well-defined evacuation routes. All of these can combine to create Fire-Resilient Communities.
Image credit http://www.fs.usda.gov
“How can cities be designed to absorb water from floods instead of block it?”
With rising sea levels and rain penetration due to climate change, cities are looking for ways to adapt. Although the most popular methods typically involve building massive pieces of infrastructure such as sea walls, more natural ways to solve this are available. One innovative way is to remodel urban areas as Sponge Cities. Sponge cities are cities with large volumes of greenery that can absorb any torrent of water. These green spaces can range from gardens to green roofs to simple porous designs. Sponge cities not only make municipalities more resilient to climate change but also prevent discharge of polluted water, increases biodiversity, and improve quality of life.
Image credit http://www.sciencefriday.com
Multi-Hazard Resilience Planning
“How can resilience planners prepare for multiple effects?”
Climate change is exacerbating more than just a single disaster per zone. In many locations, multiple hazards are occurring at the same time. For example, in the San Francisco Bay Area not only are wildfires becoming more frequent and powerful but coastal flooding is also growing day by day. Because of this, resilience professions will have to prepare for all of these using Multi-Hazard Resilience Planning, in which every single piece that can go wrong will be taken into account.