“What are the simplest types of fume hoods?”
Fume hoods are used to take in fumes from chemical lab stations and ventilate them into the atmosphere. The simplest type is where the fume hood releases the same amount of air at a constant rate all the time, no matter what. These CAV Fume hoods (Constant Air Volume) are the simplest type of fume hoods available. The fact that they cannot change their air velocity in response to external stimuli means that they give sub-optimal performance.
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Ducted Fume Hoods
“What is the most common type of fume hood?”
Fume hoods are a vital part of scientific labs. The most common type is usually a Ducted Fume Hood design where conditioned air is drawn from the lab space and siphoned into the outside atmosphere. The simplicity of the design has made it a staple of labs across the world.
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“How do scientists ensure that they are safe from chemical fumes in the lab?”
Biology and Chemistry often involve a lot of messy lab work involving chemicals, which may give off dangerous vapors. To prevent these from damaging the air quality in the lab and the health of the denizens, the fumes must be cycled away. This is commonly done through fume hoods, which sucks in air from a workbench and ventilates it to the atmosphere. Fume hoods are a vital part of the safety of every lab and have become a staple of the wet-bench research environment.
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How the Speed of the Energy Transition Is a Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
“How might the speed of the energy transition be a self-fulfilling prophecy?”
One of the most hotly-debated topics in the world right now is how fast the transition from a coal and fossil-fuel based energy paradigm to a cleaner renewable ones will be. Many say that it will be fast and exponential thanks to the precipitous price-drops in solar PV technology and others say that infrastructure lock-in will slow it to a crawl. However, the public’s belief in how fast the transition will go will modify support and pressure for new technologies and systems to be available. Therefore, if people believe that it will go fast, it will! This is How the Speed of the Energy Transition Is a Self-Fulfilling Prophecy.
“How can we identify internal vulnerabilities in infrastructure?”
In the physical world, imperfections can be found in every little structure. This also holds true for infrastructure. Resilience Vulnerabilities are the parts of infrastructure that may be liable in case a situation happens. Examples include not having backup generators or having structurally weak cement for the building.
“How can we quantify external threats against resilience?”
Unexpected events such as natural disasters and power outages can cause unexpected damage to infrastructure. In resilience analysis, these are often quantified as Resilience Threats. Example resilience threats include sea-level rise against coastal installations and natural gas pipeline bursts.
Why Infrastructure Stakeholders Should Look for Existing Resilience Plans Before Creating New Ones
“Why should we look for already existing infrastructure plans before creating new ones?”
Resilience is one of the hottest topics in civil engineering right now. Whether it be protecting cities against hurricanes or finding new ways to implement renewable energy, there always seems to be something going on. However, before any new plans are made, people should look out if there are already plans in place instead of reinventing the wheel. This is Why Infrastructure Stakeholders Should Look for Existing Resilience Plans Before Creating New Ones.