“What are PFAS chemicals and why don’t they break down?”
There are certain chemicals that do not break down in the human body. Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are such of them. This group includes PFOA, PFOS, GenX, and many other chemicals. Because of their adverse health effects, they are no longer manufactured in the United States. Water utilities also actively monitor their systems for PFAS contamination.
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Saltwater Intrusion Analytics
“How can we use analytics to detect saltwater intrusion?”
Saltwater can be highly corrosive. It rusts pipes, fries electronics, and messes up everything. To solve this, analytic software can be implemented to monitor if saltwater is entering a facility and take corrective action if too much buildup has occurred. This is how Saltwater Intrusion Analytics can be used to protect infrastructure.
Invisible Solar Panels
“How can we create invisible solar panels?”
Building-mounted solar panels are one of the hottest topics in the energy world right now. These rectangular panels absorb photons from the sun and convert them to useful electrical energy without directly emitting any greenhouse gases. However, their opaque appearance automatically prevents them from ever being attached in front of windows.
But does it have to be this way?
Researchers at Incheon University have changed the formula for making solar panels. By replacing the typical semiconducting materials used to generate electricity with highly transparent Titanium Dioxide and Nickel Oxide, allowing for photons to pass directly through, making it a material useful for windows! While the efficiency rate is only at 2%, given time and energy research will make these Invisible Solar Panels strong enough to generate electricity at much higher rates!
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How Alcoholism Hurts National Productivity
“How can alcoholism hurt national productivity?”
While alcohol in moderation can make life much more pleasurable, having too much can destroy it. If this happens at a national scale, then it can seriously dampen national productivity by reducing work output and increasing instability. This is How Alcoholism Hurts National Productivity.
Why Accurate Air Quality Measurement Is Critical for Public Health
“Why is accurate air quality measurement so critical for public health?”
Poor air quality is one of the leading causes of death and health problems worldwide. Preventative measures such as closing windows and obtaining N95 masks are critical to establishing resilience against this. However, public coordination of these efforts can only happen if an accurate estimation of what’s happening outside is measured. This is Why Accurate Air Quality Measurement Is Critical for Public Health.
The Correlation Between Carbon and Pollution Emissions
“What is the correlation between carbon and pollution emissions?”
When many think of the word “emissions” either CO2 or particulate matter come to mind. Although it would be easy to think of these as separate phenomena, they are actually closely intertwined, since noxious chemicals can release both at once. This is why there is a Correlation Between Carbon and Pollution Emissions.
Why Is Bronze Harder Than Stone?
“Why is bronze stronger than stone?”
The transition from stone to bronze marked humanity’s transition from the caves to civilization. This was brought by the ability to use this stronger material allowed for the creation of more complex machinery and structure. But what makes bronze stronger than stone? Well, it all comes down to the fact that it has a more compact molecular structure, giving it more strength! This is Why Bronze Is Harder Than Stone.
“What happens when solids particles do not dissolve in water?”
Many types of solid particles are able to be dissolved in water. But often this is not always the case. Some particles are able to stay suspended in water, contaminating its purity. These Suspended Solids are often fine particulate matter, such as the ones from wildfire air pollution, that have settled onto the water. These can be purified either through the use of a water filter or sedimentation.
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“What is the type of air pollution that makes skies blurry?”
One of the most famous visuals of the effects of air pollution are the blurry and disrupted skies. Whether it be from the urban centers of India, the smokestacks of Chinese factories, or the wildfires in California. One of the main causes of this is from particulate matter the size of 2.5 microns, commonly referred to as P.M 2.5. P.M 2.5 arises from burning materials and can travel deeply into the lungs of humans, causing intense medical damage.