“What is a response to an input frequency?”
Many machines such as music players and radios have their input depend on a periodic function (measured in Hz) and will output an amplitude (measured in dB). This is known as the frequency response of a system and is used from designing audio equipment to analyzing grid systems.
Thermal energy storage
“How can we optimize our cooling systems?”
We often run into problems when using air conditioning. Sometimes we don’t have enough refrigerant or we it might be too expensive to make some more.
But there is a simple solution to this!
What if we were to make the ice needed for HVAC systems overnight? This way, we will not have to worry about it being used and we can take advantage of the lower utility night rates. This strategy is known as thermal energy storage and is used for cooling systems worldwide
“What is one model for a closed loop controller?”
Imagine a robot moving from one spot to another. If it was operating under a closed loop controller system, it would work by sensing the target location, comparing it to the current location and performing an error estimation. However, what is one way that we can implement this? Well, let’s begin with one idea; for every second we are not at our setpoint (destination) let’s take how far we are, take it as an error value, and put it on a graph. Then, let’s take the proportion (or magnitude of the error), integral (area under the graph) and derivative (current rate of change) and combine these values to estimate how far we are from our desired value. This type of control is known as proportional-integral-derivative control (or PID) and is implemented in control systems worldwide.