Control Time Shifts
“Can we have built-in time delays into control systems?”
When working with control systems, sometimes we don’t want all actions to occur instantaneously. For example, we might want to have an elevator door wait to close a few seconds after everyone has entered. This can be modeled as a time shift within the system. A time shift for a function in the time domain can be represented by f(t) = x(t-tau) where tau is the time constant and in the Laplace domain by the equation f(s) = e^(-tau*s) *X(s).
“What is the maximum amplitude of an oscillating system?”
In the physical world, systems can vibrate at different frequencies with different outputs. But when the system achieves maximum vibration at a certain frequency, it is called a resonance. Resonance has large impacts on the design of systems, from constructing electrical circuits to achieve certain characteristics to analyzing vibrational characteristics of bridges
“How can we make controllers that deal with uncertainty?”
In an ideal implementation, controllers will have to deal with no uncertainty. However, reality is not always as nice as we would like it to be, and often times things happen that we can not prepare for. Because of this, controls engineers have invented something known as robust control to deal with such events. Robust control works by having an internal operation error boundary such that any system can handle any stimulus within the zone of error.