Why Exporting Solar Energy over HVDC Lines During Summer Could Be Beneficial for California
“Why might exporting solar energy during fire season be in California’s benefit?”
Using HVDC for cross-border energy trading in and out of California is a fiery topic. Although it could achieve regional grid integration and help solve many indeterminacy issues, it also holds great risk in decreasing fire resilience if done during the fire-prone summer. Since we’ve already discussed some alternative against summertime export, it would only be fair to include solutions in support. Since California generates an oversupply of solar energy during the Summer, it can be exported to less sun-blessed states such as Oregon and Washington. Not only would this make-up for its winter deficits, but could also be used a policy leverage tool with other states. This is Why Exporting Solar Energy over HVDC Lines During Summer Could Be Beneficial for California.
Power Factor Tariff
“Why do some facilities seem to obtain less power than they receive and how are they penalized in a tariff?”
Every facility connected to the grid can receive energy. But the amount that it receives versus what was apparently sent is known as the Power Factor Tariff. The lower the power factor tariff, the more generators and transformers, and other power infrastructure is needed to keep the system running. Since this increases the amount of upkeep needed, utilities implement a Power Factor Tariff to penalize users who draw too much from the grid.
Maximum Demand Tariffs
“How can we design a two-part tariff specifically catered to the maximum demand of a system?”
Two-part tariffs are great for controlling system-level energy use. But sometimes we would like to focus it on controlling the maximum demand for energy use. We can use something called a Maximum Demand Tariff which not only charges in proportion to energy used but levels an extra tariff based on the max power they drew for the given time period.
Block Rate Tariffs
“How can we make an electricity tariff that becomes progressively cheaper as you use more energy?”
Charging less for increased energy consumption makes sense in many cases such as incentivizing renewable energy production. One way to accomplish this is to use a tariff structure in which energy consumption amounts are divided into discrete blocks and each succeeding block of energy used is cheaper. These Block Rate Tariffs can be implemented by utilities to accomplish their infrastructure and market goals.
Flat Rate Tariffs
“How does a flat rate work for electricity usage?”
Utilities produce revenue through electricity tariffs. Although not the simplest, another simple type of tariff is the Flat Rate Tariff. Despite the name, these tariffs still charge in proportion to electricity usage. Rather, they are called flat rate since they do not discriminate based on time of use. What differentiates flat rate tariffs from simple tariffs is that they can distinguish between different types of consumers, such as residential or commercial. The advantages of flat rate tariffs is their simple implementation, while their primary drawback is their inability to incentive different times of use, a necessity to mitigate the duck curve.
Simple Electricity Tariffs
“What is the simplest type of energy tariff?”
In order for energy companies to survive, they need to find a way to charge money for the energy they produced. This is usually done through an Electricity Tariff. The most simple type of electricity tariffs is known as Simple Electricity Tariffs. These tariffs simple charge money in direct proportion to energy consumed. The advantages of this is that it simple, easy to understand and implement, and directly responds to how much electricity is used per-capita. However, the drawbacks is that these tariffs cannot be tailored to specific group’s needs, which can lead to higher cost, provides no incentive to consume more electricity, and if no electricity is purchased during the month then the utility can die.
How Rooftop Solar Can Be Used as a Grid Resource
“How can rooftop solar be utilized for the grid’s needs?”
Rooftop solar is one of the fastest growing types of distributed energy resources. However, right now they are only used to provide power to the buildings of the owner. But what if we could use that extra energy to provide power for the grid? This would increase grid flexibility and allow for further decarbonization. This is How Rooftop Solar Can Be Used a Grid Resource.