“How do we design cities and municipalities?”
Today, around 55 percent of the world lives in urban areas and that number is rapidly growing. That means as cities expand and new towns are built, there must be significant planning done to ensure livability and proper operation of all infrastructure, whether it be in transportation, utilities, or amenities. This can be accomplished through the use of Urban Planning, or the study of how to design urban conglomerates.
Why Liquid Hydrogen in Vehicles Can Be Very Dangerous
“What are the dangers of liquid hydrogen fuel in vehicles?”
Hydrogen fuel cell vehicles are a very hot research topic. However, liquid hydrogen vehicles present some strong dangers. Although sealed hydrogen is relatively safe, exposed hydrogen has some factors which can make it less so. First of all, hydrogen can catch fire really easily as it only requires 1/10th of the energy to combust compared to gas. Hydrogen flames are also nearly invisible and can displace oxygen in human lungs, making it a very silent killer. This is Why Liquid Hydrogen in Vehicles Can Be Very Dangerous.
How an Electric Vehicle’s Speed is Limited by its Back-EMF
“What is the primary limiting factor in an electric vehicle’s speed?”
Cars take can take us from one place to another at incredible speeds. However, Like everything in this world, things can only go as far as technology allows for. For electric motors, the faster the motor spins, the more back-emf will be generated. Once the back-emf is equal to the supply voltage, the electric potential will cancel out and there will be no more motion. This is How an Electric Vehicle’s Speed is Limited by its Back-EMF.
The EPA Federal Test Procedure and Why It Is Important
“How are vehicles tested for emissions and fuel economy in the United States?”
In the United States, in order to sell a car the emissions and fuel economy must be known. But how can this be accomplished? Well, what if we were to make the vehicle undergo a series of standardized and controlled drive-cycles and measure fuel consumption? This way, not only can we measure its performance for that trip but compare it to every other vehicle that underwent a similar trip. Well, it turns out the EPA does exactly with The EPA Federal Test Procedure.
Image credit: Wikipedia
“What is a more optimal fuel than gasoline?”
While gasoline is the most widespread vehicle fuel in the world, recent advances in science and technology have created competitors. One in particular comes in the form of Methanol Fuel. Methanol fuel is synthesized from carbon dioxide and hydrogen burns cleaner and is cheaper to produce sustainably than ethanol. Since it does not produce a thick cloud of smoke upon use, it is often used in racing applications. Although methanol is less toxic than petroleum, there exist very few methanol refueling stations, it is commonly found in a mixture with other fuels.
Image credit https://toxtown.nlm.nih.gov
“What happens when power is provided to all four wheels of a car at the same time?”
Different driving conditions will need different modes. When a vehicle is off-road in a low-traction environment, the wheels will need to receive a large amount of power. This can be solved using a Four-wheel Drive in which all wheels of a car are powered evenly and simultaneously. Although four drives are great for off-road conditions, the immense power can wear out tires on a normal road.
Image credit https://icdn6.digitaltrends.com
Ultracapacitors for EVs
“What is one possible way to speed up EV recharge times?”
In order to achieve deep-decarbonization of transportation, the global vehicle fleet needs to become much more electrified. However, the long recharge times associated with electric vehicles are a roadblock for this to happen. One way to solve this would be to implement Ultracapacitors for EVs. Ultracapacitors have quick recharge times, low weight, and low degradation, making them a formidable option. The downside is that manny ultracapacitors lack the storage capacity found in traditional solid-state batteries. But if this problem gets solved, then expect a paradigm shift in the EV industry!
Image credit 468y981o84o43v2wo2600a0gcj-wpengine.netdna-ssl.com