“How can we make a machine that turns vapor into liquid?”
Liquids such as water are often turned into vapors in machines after thermodynamic processes. However, how can we do the opposite? Well, let’s use our mechanical engineering mindset to figure it out. We know that if we were to have one fluid come in contact with another fluid of a different temperature, then a heat transfer would take place. And if enough heat is transferred, then a phase change will take place. So what if we were to run vapor through a thin pipe surrounded by cooler air, and have this cool air constantly replenished by a fan? Well, eventually our vapor will cool down and condense into a liquid, completing our desired objective. This device is known as a condenser, and can be found in some of our infrastructure’s most important machines ranging from air conditioners to power plants to distillation units!

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