Why Metro Systems Can Make Themselves More Resilient to Pandemics by Being Less Dependent on Rider Fees
“Why can metro systems make themselves more resilient to pandemics by being less dependent on rider fees?”
Charging rider fees is a common funding mechanism for metro systems. But being too reliant can cause lead to revenue shortfalls during pandemics. One way to increase resilience against these events is to shift the funding basis away from rider fees. This way transit companies are not beholden to the presence of riders. This is Why Metro Systems Can Make Themselves More Resilient to Pandemics by Being Less Dependent on Rider Fees.
Why Rider Fees-Dependent Metro Systems Suffered Greatly During the COVID Onset
“Why did rider fee-dependent metro systems suffer greatly during the COVID onset?”
Metro systems are funded through a variety of mechanisms. Charging riders a fee is one of these. If a system bases a sizable portion of its revenue on these fees, then a dip in ridership can cause significant financial harm. When the COVID pandemic started, people stopped using transit en masse. This made metro systems dependent on rider fees such as Bay Area Rapid Transport (BART) to lose revenue drastically. This is Why Rider Fees-Dependent Metro Systems Suffered Greatly During the COVID Onset.
New Metro Train Car Design
“How do metro organizations design new transit cars?”
Metro organizations work on updating their transit cars when the time comes for it. The entire phase begins with New Metro Train Car Design. New cars are designed for system needs and capacities, looking over variables such as speed, aerodynamics, cost, and rail system. The design phase will set the tone for the rest of the project.
New Metro Train Car Testing
“How do metro organizations test new transit cars?”
The state of the art of metro cars advances each year. To keep up, metro transit organizations new to bring new train cars into their fleets. However, they must be tested to ensure they work as intended. This process can include wind tunnel testing, HVAC system checks, propulsion calibration, and more. New Metro Train Car Testing is a vital part of making transit systems as safe and efficient as possible.
Why the U.S Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956 Was Racist
“Why was the U.S Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956 racist?”
In 1956, the United States Congress passed the Federal Highway Act. This act allocated 25 billion USD for the design and construction of 66,000 km (41,000 miles) of the interstate highway system with a timeframe of 10 years. Since highways cut off and pollute surrounding neighborhoods, these highways were routed through neighborhoods of color (especially Black majority ones) to keep the residents segregated and disenfranchised. The impacts can still be seen to this day, where wall-like highways surround Black and Brown neighborhoods such as West Oakland. This is Why the U.S Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956 Was Racist.
The U.S Endangered Species Conservation Act of 1969
“Why does the U.S prohibit the importation of any endangered species for personal use?”
The Endangered Species Preservation Act of 1966 was a landmark piece of legislation that provided federal protection for endangered species. This was upgraded three years later with the passage of The Endangered Species Conservation Act of 1969. This legislation designated species deemed endangered worldwide to be critical and outlawed the importation of them for personal use.
The U.S Endangered Species Preservation Act of 1966
“What law started the protection of endangered species in the U.S?”
Species may become endangered because of human interference. To protect them, the government may have to intervene. In the United States, this began with the Endangered Species Preservation Act of 1966. This act allows the government to acquire land to protect species classified as endangered.
“How do some governments determine who was a right to water?”
Who has the right to use water can be a contentious question. Whoever controls water can determine if it’s to be used for agriculture, industry, recreation, preservation, and more. To conceptualize this, many governments have codified Water Rights into their laws. Water rights determine the right of a user to use a body of water. Different water rights systems in the United States include riparian, appropriative, and pueblo rights.
The United States Submerged Lands Act
“Who is the default owner of petroleum deposits three nautical miles off the coast of U.S States?”
It’s a big question who owns petroleum deposits by default near the coastline in the U.S. After much deliberation, in 1953 the United States Federal Congress passed The United States Submerged Lands Act. This law stipulates that any minerals or deposits found within three nautical miles (5.556 kilometers) of the waters of a U.S State belong to the aforementioned State government. An exception is made for Texas and Florida, who have a right within three nautical leagues (16.668 kilometers).