Green Stormwater Infrastructure
“How can nature be used as stormwater infrastructure?”
With the advent of climate change, floods are becoming more and more common. To adapt to this and build resilience, municipalities must build stormwater infrastructure in a sustainable manner. One of the best ways to approach this is with Green Stormwater Infrastructure, in which plants and soil are used to absorb stormwater runoff into the earth, evaporate some into the air, and even release some into the sewer.
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“How does flooding in urban areas occur and how does it damage infrastructure?”
Floods occur when there is an overflow of water in an area that is usually dry. This can occur in urban areas as well, usually caused by too much rainfall or a burst in storm control infrastructure. Urban Flooding can wreak havoc on communities and cost upwards of billions of dollars in damages.
Engine Pressure Ratio
“How does the ratio of outgoing and incoming air pressure affect the performance of a jet engine?”
The difference in air pressure across the entrance and exit of a jet engine is what allows a jet to fly. The greater this pressure, the better the performance. To get a standard metric for this, we can take the outlet pressure and divide it by the inlet. The greater the number, the better the performance. This is why the Engine Pressure Ratio is so important.
The Ratio of Fresh Surface Water to Ocean Surface Water and Why it Matters
“Why does it matter that there is over thirty-two times as much water in the ocean than lakes?”
Water is foundational to biological life. 97% of surface water is located in the ocean while the rest are in lakes and other freshwater sources. Since humans are using freshwater at unsustainable rates and ocean water has extra salinity, people will have to think more about conserving water and expanding desalinization.
“How is smoke from a controlled fire source let out of a building?”
Controlled fire has all sorts of uses for humans. Whether it be keeping a home warm with a fireplace, heating water, or using an electric generator, something is there. But fire often releases particles into the air which may be harmful for human health. So how can we get rid of these? Well, what if we were to send the smoke through a chimney and out through a hole called a flue? This is the exact idea behind ventilation in modern architecture.
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How Carbon Capture Should be Split Between the Western and Eastern United States
“Why should we deploy carbon capture devices in the Western US and plant trees instead in the Eastern US?”
As of right now, there is a fierce debate in the negative emissions technology space. Some believe that mechanical negative emissions technologies are too expensive and electricity dependent and that we should plant trees instead Others believe that trees take up too much water and land resources as well as provide fuel for fires. However, these solutions are not mutually exclusive, and should be deployed according to an area’s needs. In the Western US, water is scarce and is being more so while there is plenty of sunlight for cheap solar energy, making mechanical carbon capture devices quite practical. In the Eastern US, rain and water is plentiful and floods are happening more frequently, so planting a large amount of trees would be logical. This is How Carbon Capture Should be Split Between the Western and Eastern United States.
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Boiler Feed Water Treatment Systems
“Why do we need to treat water before being sent into boilers?”
As apart of the water treatment process, water needs to be boiled. However, incoming water after raw water filtration may be contaminated with impurities, which could damage the infrastructure of the boilers. As a result, the incoming water will first need to go through Boiler Feed Water Treatment Systems in order to work properly.
Image credit http://www.samcotech.com