“How can we determine if there is a relationship between two phenomena?”
One of the most fundamental aspects of science is trying to find a causal relationship between two factors. To do this, we can use a statistical technique called Linear Regression which calculates how closely knit the independent and dependent variables are.
Simple Moving Averages
“How can we make an average of constantly changing data?”
Data is all around us. And one often times we receive this data in real-time, whether it be in energy generation or the value of cryptocurrency. So how can we analyze any indicators of this data? Well, we can take a certain number of the most recent set of the data, such as the most last four data points, and simply take the average of that. This method is known as the Simple Moving Average. If the current data points are above or below the Simple Moving Average, then it will send a signal indicator.
“How can we select relevant features from data?”
Engineers and Scientists (both Natural and Social) analyze data to see what causes what. Often times, they will start with a set of factors that they think that is relevant, and trim down what does not have any effect. This is known as Feature Selection and is one of the underlying tools behind statistics and machine learning.
“What happens when all of the data in a set is the same?”
Data usually has some variation. However, occasionally everything actually turns out to be the same. This Zero Variance usually is a result of the thing being measured having no measurable change with the input.
“What exactly is Air Pollution?”
Air Pollution is one of the most discussed topics in both scientific research and public policy. But what is it exactly? Well, when some form of chemical activity occurs, whether it be in a manufacturing process or the aftermath of an internal combustion engine, chemicals may be released into the air. And some of these chemicals such as carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide may be toxic to human health, thereby creating air pollution!
Air Pollution Sensors
“How can we detect air pollution?”
Air pollution is one of the most harmful side effects of industrialized activity. Whether it be shipping in the Port of Los Angeles, manufacturing in Shenzhen, or vehicular smog in Delhi, air pollution can seriously destroy public health. But how can we use our engineering mindset to quantify this? Well, we know that sensors are commonly used for detection, engineers have created Air Pollution Sensors to solve this crisis. Air Pollution Sensors can be configured to detect five types of pollutants: ozone, particulate matter, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrous oxide.
Fast-Charging EV Infrastructure
“How can we make Electric Vehicle charging faster?”
Electric vehicles are seeing an exponential adoption rate. But in spite of their myriads of benefits, they have one serious bottleneck, charge times. Specifically, it can take upwards of 12 hours to charge a single model! Because of this, researchers are working day and night to create Fast-Charging EV Infrastructure that can bring this charging time down to a half hour!
“What is the largest possible scale of energy storage with modern day engineering?”
Companies such as Tesla Motors are investing in energy storage like there is no tomorrow. The current frontier is Gigawatt-Hour-Scale Storage. Just to put things into perspective, one gigawatt-hour is enough to power the average California home for over 92 years!
Partial Differential Equations
“Are there Differential Equations controlled by more than one variable?”
Differential Equations are ubiquitous in nature. Whether it be in modeling how an object falls or how the economy rises, they always seem to have some form of application. But some of these Differential Equations are very special. Specifically, they are controlled by more than one variable. These Partial Differential Equations govern phenomena such as waves and heat conduction and require their own unique solution methods.