“How can we geometrically represent chemical bonds?”
Chemical bonds are one of the most fundamental aspects of Chemistry. But when a student of science is first introduced to them, they are simply shown them in a purely conceptual form. But how can we make a more accurate representation of what these structures actually look like? Well, let’s think about it. We know that some elements can covalently bond with one another by sharing orbital electrons. So what if we just drew structures that represented these orbital bonds? This is the fundamental principle behind a tool that called Lewis structures. There are several steps to forming a Lewis structure. The first is to identify the element in the bond with the least amount of electronegativity (With the exception of hydrogen). Then one has to place the rest of the elements around the aforementioned low-electronegativity element. Then, one must place the associated valence electrons around each of the element. Since all non-noble gas elements will have some of their electron orbitals free, there will be a need for some of the valence elements to form covalent pairs with others to obtain the necessary filled valence shell. Afterwards, if there are still more electrons that need to be filled, then double and triple bonds can be formed to increase the amount of valence electrons. If all valence electrons on the outer elements are filled up and the inner element still needs or has more valence electrons, then the surplus electrons will form lone pairs on the central element.