“How can covalent bonds occur if the elements are in different orbitals?”
There seems to be a problem when it comes to covalent bonding. Bonding theory states that bonds occur because of an overlap of of atomic orbitals.Much of the time, the central element will have different orbitals than the surrounding ones. So how can chemical bonding occur? Well, nature can be very clever. What happens is that the subshells will hybridize to become one big subshell. Each electron will try to fit into it’s own shell in the subshell. If there is overlap, then there will be a lone pair of electrons.To illustrate, an element with orbitals of s2 p2 will become sp3, as the second electron from s2 will have extra room. With hybridization, chemical bonding can occur.