“How can different infrastructures be interdependent without any direct connection?”
Infrastructures can be interdependent in numerous ways. However, one of the most subtle forms is through cause and effect, in which the consequences of one infrastructure failure will carry over into another one. Take for example the 2018 Northern California Wildfires. When the fallen transmission line caused a fire, the smoke that swept into the Bay Area caused the air pollution levels to skyrocket. This made people rush to the hardware stores to purchase protective masks, emptying stocks within hours. Through Logical Interdependence, the supply of gas masks was contingent on the fire resilience in Northern California.
The Trade-Offs Between Distributed and Concentrated Energy Generation for Resilience
“What resilience trade-offs are there between using distributed and concentrated energy generation?”
Both distributed and concentrated energy generation supporters argue that their preferred energy generation method is superior. Distributed supporters say that their preferred method allows for generation to be much closer to consumption loads, undercutting the need for long transmission lines, while concentrated supporters say that their base load profiles allows for the necessary amount of energy to be delivered throughout the day. When selecting new energy methods, these must be taken into consideration during construction. These are The Trade-Offs Between Distributed and Concentrated Energy Generation for Resilience.
Why Situational Awareness of the Grid Is Crucial for Electricity Resiliency
“Why is monitoring the grid so crucial for electricity resilience?”
One of the most fundamental parts of building resilience is preventing cascading outages. If even a single transmission line snaps, then it could overwhelm other ones, eventually resulting in a large-scale power loss. One of the key tools to preventing this is having situational awareness of what is going on in the grid, so one can react fast enough to mishaps. This is Why Situational Awareness of the Grid Is Crucial for Electricity Resiliency.
Image credit static1.squarespace.com
How a Downed Transmission Line Can Trigger a Cascading Power Failure
“How can a single failed transmission line cause a whole power grid to shutdown?”
The electricity grid is the backbone of modern human infrastructure. However, if a single transmission line becomes faulty and goes down, then power will need to be redistributed throughout the entire system accordingly. If no care is taken, then the extra surge of electricity can overwhelm other transmission lines and cause them to fail, repeating the process until a cascading power failure occurs such as in The Northeast Blackout of 2003. This is How a Downed Transmission Line Can Trigger a Cascading Power Failure.
Why Informing Citizens of the Risk of Power Outages Is Important for Making Public Resilience Decisions
“What is the importance of informing people about the risk of power outages?”
Power outages occur from time to time. And when they do, it could cause great harm to existing infrastructure, both public and private. HVAC systems will shut down, food in fridges will rot, and pipes might freeze over. That being said, there are a large amount of citizens who are not aware of the totality of the risks. If they become informed, then they can make better decisions and help contribute to making better public decisions about infrastructure. This is Why Informing Citizens of the Risk of Power Outages Is Important for Making Public Resilience Decisions.
How an Institute’s Culture is the Biggest Effect on Resilience
“Why does bad institutional culture harm resilience more than engineering or human errors?”
When infrastructure failures occur, the engineering or human failures are often the ones that are the most analyzed. However, new research has come out supporting a very different idea. It is the governing institutions culture that has the greatest impact. To illustrate, the Northern Californian utility Pacific Gas and Electricity had long neglected infrastructure repairs/upgrades and foliage trimming, ultimately leading to the great Camp Fire of November 2018. This is How an Institute’s Culture is the Biggest Effect on Resilience.
Why Telecommuting Should be Considered Apart of Sustainable Transportation
“Why should we include telecommuting into sustainable transportation?”
When sustainable transportation is conjured up, images of electric vehicles and bullet trains are conjured up. However, since a core component of sustainable transportation is taking vehicles off of the road, telecommuting should be considered. Telecommuting allows people to skip traveling, whether it be a car to work or a plane to a meeting, thereby saving on greenhouse gas emissions. This is Why Telecommuting Should be Considered Apart of Sustainable Transportation.