The EPA Federal Test Procedure and Why It Is Important
“How are vehicles tested for emissions and fuel economy in the United States?”
In the United States, in order to sell a car the emissions and fuel economy must be known. But how can this be accomplished? Well, what if we were to make the vehicle undergo a series of standardized and controlled drive-cycles and measure fuel consumption? This way, not only can we measure its performance for that trip but compare it to every other vehicle that underwent a similar trip. Well, it turns out the EPA does exactly with The EPA Federal Test Procedure.
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How to Properly Use Distributed Energy Resources for Resilience
“How should we use distributed energy resources to build resilience?”
Distributed energy resources such as solar and wind energy are shaping up to be the next dominant paradigm in energy. And one of their most touted benefits is the increased resilience that they will bring. However, research has shown that this will only occur if they are deployed in a careful manner. This means that they will need to be planned to provide backup to vulnerable transmission lines, relieve congestion, and be placed under control of grid operators. This is How to Use Distributed Energy Resources for Resilience.
How Isolating Grid Infrastructure from the Internet can Increase Resilience to a Cyber Attack
“How can we increase security by making the grid go offline?”
In the modern world, it seems like everything is becoming connected to the internet. Although this has brought revolutions in communication, it has also left many components viable to a cyber attack. The grid is no different, and has already been hacked because of this. To prevent this from happening, the grid can simply be disconnected from the internet. That way no attacker can come in and tinker with the components. This is How Isolating Grid Infrastructure from the Internet can Increase Resilience to a Cyber Attack.
A Simple Reason Why Humanity Needs to be Less Wasteful to Curb Climate Catastrophe
“What is one tough thing humanity needs to adopt to fight climate change?”
Right now humanity is on track to shoot past a rise of 2-degree centigrade from pre-industrialization by 2030. And one of the primary reasons behind this is because human energy consumption and population has been rising over the years. Much of the global focus to fight this has been increasing technological energy efficiency. But according to the equation I = PAT, if population and affluence rise then it would offset more efficient technology. If humanity does not want to quickly decrease its population then it must change its culture of affluence. This is A Simple Reason Why Humanity Needs to be Less Wasteful to Curb Climate Catastrophe.
“How can we use sand for protection?”
Sand is a marvelous material. It’s inexpensive, sturdy, and plentiful. So why don’t we just put it in an easy to use container for engineering purposes? This is the idea behind Sandbags which can be applied from flood control to military defense.
Why Wind Energy has Difficulty with Black Starts
“Why does wind energy have difficulty with getting up after a blackout?”
When energy systems suffer from a blackout, black starts are used to make them come online again. However, wind energy has difficulty with black starts this since a gust may not be blowing at the necessary start times.
How More Extreme Coldwaves will Harm Transportation Infrastructure
“How will Transportation Infrastructure be harmed by more extreme coldwaves?”
Transportation infrastructure will definitely be impacted by the changing weather. But climate change is doing much more than rising temperatures. More extreme coldwaves in certain parts of the earth are resulting from changing polar vortex. The behemoth damage brought onto transportation systems includes more delays in train/plane schedules, heavier icing of streets, and more stress on structures. This is How More Extreme Coldwaves will Harm Transportation Infrastructure.