“What are PFAS chemicals and why don’t they break down?”
There are certain chemicals that do not break down in the human body. Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are such of them. This group includes PFOA, PFOS, GenX, and many other chemicals. Because of their adverse health effects, they are no longer manufactured in the United States. Water utilities also actively monitor their systems for PFAS contamination.
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How Alcoholism Hurts National Productivity
“How can alcoholism hurt national productivity?”
While alcohol in moderation can make life much more pleasurable, having too much can destroy it. If this happens at a national scale, then it can seriously dampen national productivity by reducing work output and increasing instability. This is How Alcoholism Hurts National Productivity.
“What happens when solids particles do not dissolve in water?”
Many types of solid particles are able to be dissolved in water. But often this is not always the case. Some particles are able to stay suspended in water, contaminating its purity. These Suspended Solids are often fine particulate matter, such as the ones from wildfire air pollution, that have settled onto the water. These can be purified either through the use of a water filter or sedimentation.
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“What exactly are single-use plastic and why are they so bad?”
Plastic is a very useful material. It’s flexible, fairly non-reactive, and strong, making it applicable for single-use grocery bags. However, the fact that Single-use Plastics are not recyclable and biodegradable means that they will end up in a land-fill and release toxic chemicals into the environment. To solve this crisis, a new generation of thinkers will have to come up with innovative policy and technical solutions. This could be anyone, from a regular Joe to someone whose name rhymes with Narina.
“How can we lower the freezing point of water?”
Water is known for its important freezing point. In fact, the entire metric temperature system is based off it! However, sometimes we may need to lower its freezing point. This can be accomplished through Antifreeze substances. Antifreeze is usually based off mixtures of water and either ethylene glycol (EGW) or propylene glycol (PGW). Antifreeze has plenty of applications, ranging from automotive engines to electronics cooling.
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“What are the ramifications of water contamination?”
Water is one of the most fundamental resources for human life. However, if there is any Water Contamination present, whether it be from runoff chemicals or an infectious bacteria, there could be dire ramifications. Humans can be harmed by unsafe chemicals in drinking water while mechanical processes can be harmed through corrosion.
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Why the Oceans Are Becoming More Acidic
“How are CO2 emissions changing our oceans?”
Every second of every minute of every hour more and more carbon dioxide is being pumped into our atmosphere. Since the carbon intensity in the air will increase, the ocean will absorb more CO2. This larger amounts of this element will react with the H2O in water to form Carbonic Acid (H2CO3) and Hydrogen ions (H+). With a higher volumetric makeup of the latter elements, the oceans will become more acidic, threatening the stability of sea-life. This is Why the Oceans Becoming More Acidic.
Why Liquid Hydrogen in Vehicles Can Be Very Dangerous
“What are the dangers of liquid hydrogen fuel in vehicles?”
Hydrogen fuel cell vehicles are a very hot research topic. However, liquid hydrogen vehicles present some strong dangers. Although sealed hydrogen is relatively safe, exposed hydrogen has some factors which can make it less so. First of all, hydrogen can catch fire really easily as it only requires 1/10th of the energy to combust compared to gas. Hydrogen flames are also nearly invisible and can displace oxygen in human lungs, making it a very silent killer. This is Why Liquid Hydrogen in Vehicles Can Be Very Dangerous.
High-level Nuclear Waste
“What is the highest level of nuclear waste?”
During nuclear power generation, the energy in the fuel rods will become used up. Although it will no longer be effective in creating electricity, it will still be extremely radioactive. The most dangerous form of this is known as High-level Nuclear Waste. High-level nuclear waste must be carefully isolated in strong containers such as water entrapment systems to prevent any form of leakage.
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