Author: circe61404769

Climate Migration in Greece and California: What are its impacts and what can we do about it?

Climate Migration in Greece and California: What are its impacts and what can we do about it?

Marina Baracos

Throughout the history of human civilization, there has been one thing that has been a constant for humans: Migration. This is something that has allowed for rich cultures to be created, from the first settlers in the Fertile Crescent to the diverse mix of individuals that creates the society that we have today. However, something that stands out for most of these large-scale migrations is that they are either the result of natural disasters, persecution, economic opportunities, or war. Climate migration is an extension of the first category, with its formal definition being the displacement of a population due to weather conditions or infrastructure damage caused directly by climate change. There are numerous different factors that can contribute to the need for climate migration. Some of the most important factors to emphasize are gentrification, lack of proper infrastructure adaptation, and the lack of a long-term plan for a community. This is something that is highlighted within my previous articles concerning flooding and wildfires in California and Greece. When communities are at a point that their economic or health condition is perilous due to climate change, migration might be the only way for them to remain safe. With this being said, there are several things that we have to consider whether or not climate migration will be a primary way of adapting to the changing environment. What are some of the policies and obstacles related to climate migration? Based on historic migration patterns, what reception can we expect in the government and populace of these geographic areas? What solutions can be applied to both geographic regions? Finally, how can we ensure that there exists effective cultural preservation for these at-risk groups?

Policy and History of Internal Migration in Greece
Historically, Greece has had several issues surrounding immigration and emigration within the country’s political system. Due to the current economic conditions, this issue has been made worse by the lack of resources and interventions for these groups. There has been migration in and out of the Balkans, Turkey, and the Middle East. There have been numerous difficulties with economic and sociopolitical support. Greece has had several conflicts surrounding racism and immigration, specifically refugees from outside of Greece. Far-right political parties have created an active opposition to the integration of other cultures and peoples. [2] However, regulations by the EU are starting to take effect to better support these people and migration into Greece in general.[2] Currently, the wildfires in Greece are becoming a prevalent indication that these policies and issues need to be acted upon sooner than later. Many people are being forced to flee their homes and villages with no promise of a stable living environment or cultural preservation. These areas need to anticipate this accommodation of these internal migrants

Internal Migration Policy Issues in California
Currently, In California, policies are being implemented to revise the current infrastructure and insurance policies to accommodate for these wildfires that are a direct product of climate change. Many people find the increase in insurance to be troublesome and counterproductive instead of building structures that are specifically adapted to better suit these climate changes. In California, much of the climate migration is focused on the wildfires. Therefore, in California, the climate conditions indicate that we should place more emphasis on the revision of housing, including affordable housing for those affected in lower-income areas. In addition, climate migrants from both poor and wealthy areas should be mixed into mixed-income housing. This type of development incorporates individuals from a variety of racial and socioeconomic backgrounds and combines affordable and market-rate housing. [3] This can create a more connected and diverse community that is easier to support and accommodate as a whole. But, like many other policies and advancements, there can be opposition to this type of housing. There are some people who believe that this type of housing is intrusive or takes away from the character of a community. These people, defined as NIMBYS, or “Not in My Backyard”, do not support and actively oppose the development of affordable housing. While education as to why this is not the case can be helpful, there are some people that are still adamant about this perceived threat.

International Migration in Greece and Europe
Greece and Europe are destination locations for refugees fleeing violence in their homelands. One such country is Syria. Syria is a country that has had many immigrants and migrants to and from Greece. Greece is one of the four major paths used by migrants to flee to the EU, and is one of the shortest distances for those escaping war-torn countries [8] the other routes into the EU are heavily guarded and patrolled, meaning that Greece is used as a gateway more often because of these regulations. These immigration routes include the Baltics, Africa, and the Central, East, and West Mediterranean routes. Something that also is very troubling about this policy system is that families seeking asylum. For example, in the podcast “Crossing Borders”, the experience of one such migrant and his family is highlighted. Initially, the asylum application of the young man was accepted, but those of his parents were not. They were torn apart because of this policy, and he was only reunited with his family many years later, when their case was reconsidered. [6] This story highlights several important factors regarding the legal systems and accommodations for migrants, in all regions of the world.

International Migration in California
The economic impacts for imposing climate migration are currently a mixed bag, as it may be for Europe. Opposition and bias are experienced by many immigrants from Central America and outlying regions. Yet again, we are forced to look at the impacts of racism and societal hierarchy. Policy and awareness is something that is at the heart of the issue of immigration. Not only does this directly relate to the policies regarding physical capabilities of migration and infrastructure modification, but allowing for those who suffer from the aftermath of climate migration to be stably situated in the new environment and become adjusted and welcomed in their new community. This principle is clearly demonstrated in the situation of the Dry Corridor in the Northern Triangle of Central America. This region is in the intersection of Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, and Nicaragua. [7] This area is particularly impacted by climate change, specifically droughts brought on by the tropical climate pattern of El Nino. [7] Since the harvests and economical prospect of this area is being ravaged due to colonialism and climate disruption, many families have considered migration to be something that would allow for them to continue to prosper in the near future. However, the relationship between this corridor and the United States is very tense given the former’s xenophobia, which gives rise to many questions surrounding the adaptation of immigration policy.

Race, Riots, and Redlining
The history of redlining and housing discrimination must be dealt with when working with climate migrants in the U.S context. In many areas, this has been a problem for centuries and is still an ongoing problem to this day. While this is a problem in both the United States and in Europe, this paragraph primarily focuses on the problems faced in the United States. Historically, the practice of redlining was implemented to prevent ethnic minorities, particularly African Americans, from being housed in the same or areas adjacent to whites. This policy divided cities and subsequently separated areas with better infrastructure and more resources for the white population, furthering the economic divide between races. Areas that have tried to undo policies that were blatantly discriminatory have faced riots from the surrounding communities. [4] Another element of redlining is that populations residing in redlined areas were historically prevented from owning homes. While this demographic and need for homeownership has shifted, we need to be aware of several issues that might happen along these similar lines for climate migrants. Will they be given the chance to adequately incorporate into their new community? While the United States specifically implemented policies to prevent housing discrimination based on gender, sexual orientation, race, or socioeconomic status [4], examples of more subliminal separation are still existent. There are communities that are built around different economic classes, such as suburbs and urban areas, but cities are where this incorporation is highly important in order for fair housing for all climate migrants to be built.

Migration and Camps in the US and Greece
Something that is also a concern surrounding policy and migration in both Europe and the United States are migrant detention camps. When immigrants from other geographic regions or countries are unable to obtain a visa or other forms of identification necessary for them to be relocated into a community at the time of their immigration or are suspected to have immigrated illegally, they are put into immigrant detention camps. However, the original purpose of these camps and what they have become, in both examples in the United States and in Europe, vary drastically. In Greece, these camps have been dubbed “concentration camps”, due to the fact that the population in these camps outnumbers that of Greek prisons and is meant as a clear method of segregation. [2] These camps were originally created as a temporary means to house migrants until they could obtain the necessary documentation and permissions to be placed within a community, which would take three months. This has changed to become a time frame of a year or more. [2] In the United States, this limit is six months for processing related to immigration. While there are still several noticeable discrepancies in the United States, something that is concerning in Greece is the political ideology blatantly enforced by the current minister of national defense stating that large-scale immigration is “a bomb aimed at the foundations of society and of the state”. [2] These camps are particularly concerning when we look at the overall picture of immigration and climate migration in Greece. Many of the refugees and migrants sent to Greece are put into these camps, which are barring them from the help that they might receive elsewhere in the EU. Therefore, more emphasis on quick action for these refugees and stricter regulations on the time periods that these refugees may need to stay in any camp is of high priority.

Policy Solution in the US and Greece
There are, however, several policies that are in place to protect against some of the issues that come up with Climate migration. Something that is being discussed in Europe is the fact that if Greece is struggling to make ends meet with climate refugees, just by admitting that they might need more help can outsource refugees and provide more economic resources. There have been several reasons why this help was not able to be previously implemented, but these policies can now be used to their full effectiveness. In the US, some policies that may aid climate migrants are the policy that prevents housing discrimination. This means that anyone of any race or socioeconomic status is not to be discriminated against by landlords and mortgage companies. These laws have been put into place to counteract the historical negative effects of Redlining, which segregated and discriminated against African Americans and other People of Color from owning or renting housing in specific areas. This is something that needs to be addressed by way of policy change and enforcement for migration to take effect in a meaningful way that is beneficial in the long term.

The Idea of “Hereness” and Cultural Preservation
Cultural preservation is a large concern for communities displaced by climate migration. Many of the cultural practices within these groups of people have been firmly rooted in their environment, which can cause a degree of fear of separation. For example, communities such as New Orleans are in areas that are facing the constant threat of climate migration and retreat. Something that can be used to counter fear of cultural loss is an ideology called “Hereness”. “Hereness” originated from Bundism, an ideology that came to prominence in the period of time during the persecution of Jews worldwide, and something that is noticeably different from nationalism is the sense of home and place. This idea highlighted that culture does not have to be associated with any given place for a diasporic group, and can be brought anywhere to any location to call home. [5] This idea has been transferred to Greece through the Socialist Workers Federation. By bringing this ideology to light, much of the tension created from unanticipated migration can be alleviated or solutions can be created to incorporate culture into a new geographical area, and create a more connected perspective from a community.

Climate Migration and Policy
There are several downfalls within the current policy system that need to be addressed in order to anticipate climate migration. The system that these immigrants must go through to enter a country is extremely difficult to go through, and even for the agencies to fund [1]. Because of these poor living conditions and bleak outlook of this situation, many immigrants have viewed facing death as more bearable than having to go through this broken system and watch their families and loved ones suffer. [1] The policies and physical resources allotted for these people are exhausted beyond capacity, and no further action is possible without outside intervention. In this case, organizations such as charities and churches may need to intervene to provide support. For some groups of religious denominations, this can be a source of a common hope. Something else that can bring hope to these groups is that of cultural transfer, or the ability to bring old cultural practices, traditions, and customs to a new environment. This is something that is highly stressed in many plans and debates about climate migration. Many forms of culture can be carried over via migration and, occasionally, a few sources of income and economic stability might remain constant. If we are able to improve these policies, we can also prevent large distance migration and be able to keep communities closer to where they might originate.

Solutions and Conclusion: What can we do?
In conclusion, there are several facets to climate migration that we need to take into account to create a better picture of its impact on communities in Greece and California in the future. Firstly, in order for us to change the impact that climate migration will have, we firstly have to protect our existing communities, not focusing on retreat as being our only option. When retreat has to become an option, we need to have set in place several policies to better aid the migration from these communities. Firstly, we need to remember what has been historically a large issue with the ideas of “acceptable” migration and systemic racism. Camps for undocumented immigrants have proved to be a major issue and violation of civil rights in both the United States and Europe. These camps were initially created to house immigrants for 3-6 months at most, but these time limits have been disregarded and individuals have resided in these camps for 12 months and counting. [2] We also need to take into account policies for housing integration once migrants are placed within a community. Particularly in the United States, redlining, or the racial injustice of separation of Whites and other races, is something that will forever overshadow housing policy as we know it. This discrimination is a pattern that we must be careful not to repeat, meaning that we have to put constant effort into revising these policies and actively lobby against these injustices. Finally, something that is vital for a community to truly belong to and foster in their new home is the idea of “Hereness”. This ideology helps bring to light the idea that non-indigineous culture is not always tied to place, and much like how migrants brought cultures to regions in the past and passed down their traditions, this is possible for those who may be subject to climate migration. Fundamentally, our connection to our culture is what makes us who we are, and that is something that can transcend time and place.

Works Cited:
[1] KCETOnline. (2019, April 23). S1 e2: Climate migration. YouTube.
[2] Carras, I. (2012, December 21). Is Greece a racist state? openDemocracy.
[3] HUDUser. (2013). Mixed-Income community DYNAMICS: Five insights From Ethnography: Hud user. Mixed-Income Community Dynamics: Five Insights From Ethnography.
[4] Rothstein, R. (2018). The color of law: A forgotten history of how our government segregated America. Liveright Publishing Corporation, a division of W.W. Norton & Company.
[5] Wikimedia Foundation. (2021, June 13). Socialist workers’ Federation. Wikipedia.
[6] Crossing borders Podcast. HIAS. (n.d.).
[7] Wikimedia Foundation. (2021, July 9). Dry corridor. Wikipedia.
[8] YouTube. (2021, February 1). How do Migrants & refugees get to Europe? Four major paths taken to enter the EU – TLDR News. YouTube.

The Impact of Climate Change on Wildfires in Mediterranean Climates

The Impact of Climate Change on Wildfires in Mediterranean Climates

Marina Baracos

A city-wide order to remain indoors is seen on your local news. You only make essential trips and have to carry a mask with you. Your family and friends are all worried about the fate of their community. While this is something that we were all introduced to due to the COVID-19  pandemic, this is something many people in warm climates have already adapted to. These are some of the consequences of wildfires in California and Greece. Wildfires are unanticipated fires occurring in foliage due to extreme heat, lightning strikes, or other means of combustion. Wildfires already occur naturally in the hottest parts of the year in areas with Mediterranean climates such as California and Greece, where the ground may amplify any heat onto nearby dead foliage. Wildfire activity is particularly concentrated in the mountainous regions of these two places since they have a wet season that produces a large amount of foliage which then dies off during the hot/dry season. Climate change is amplifying the size, magnitude, and duration of wildfires by making the wet season shorter and more intense and the dry season longer. The occurrence of wildfires in the United States, specifically in western regions, has doubled between 1984 and 2015. [1] Wildfires are directly correlated with drought and prolonged heat conditions. But this is not the only reason that wildfires can occur, as more than 80 percent are caused by human activities. [1] Many of these have to do with maltreatment of the area, or continued erosion of the land so that it does not absorb water and is naturally prone to drought. Historically, this might be linked to the overuse of land due to agriculture, in excessive tilling and slash-and-burn processes.

There are many ways that this crisis affects both California and Greece. In Greece, wildfires are still prevalent, but they occur less often and are generally less severe than they are in California. The rainy season of both areas typically occurs during the Winter and early Spring due to their Mediterranean climates, with the snow of continental climates being replaced with rain. During this amount of time, there is usually heavy rainfall and cooler temperatures that thoroughly irrigate the ground. However, more extreme weather patterns are arising due to emission-induced climate changes, leading to a lack of natural irrigation. This lack of rain is directly what caused these deadly fires, as the natural weather patterns are not adjusted to this type of heat so late or early in the seasonal cycle. Not only do wildfires directly impact the stability and safety of a community in the short term, but can lead to increased air pollution over time. As vegetation burns, it causes the release of more carbon dioxide into the surrounding atmosphere. As a greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide holds in more heat in the atmosphere, especially in that particular area, therefore, leading to the repetition of this phenomenon on both a large and small scale.

In areas where wildfires historically have occurred for many years, we need to look back on historic practices for dealing with wildfires, specifically indigenous approaches. Groups have historically evolved in areas where wildfires are common to live in such a manner that supports both developed living and the environmental health of an area. Take, for example, the indigenous tribes of California, such as the North Fork Mono people. They adjusted to the landscape and climate patterns before any industrialization. While we might assume that the major problem with wildfire control in these areas is the lack of western scientific intervention, this is not necessarily true. The secret to managing these wildfires is also rooted in indigenous practices that have been around for millennia. One such policy is controlled burning. Controlled burning has been used by many cultures to encourage the regrowth of vegetation to prevent larger fires in the future. By carefully timing this intervention during the seasons where the area is most prone to wildfires, dead vegetation that makes the chances of wildfires worse is eliminated in a way that is based on the observed changes in wind and temperature of an area. [2]

Slash-and-burn agriculture is another technique that is sometimes associated with fire management, but the major difference is that this practice is highly damaging to the environment. It is important to contrast this with controlled burning to understand what needs to be done to improve this situation, and what practices could actually make it worse and need to be avoided. Slash-and-burn agriculture is the clearing of forests and otherwise wooded areas with large-scale burning that causes deforestation, pollution, a large amount of ash, and loss of moisture in the soil. The areas that this process is used in often becomes unsuitable for growing any form of vegetation after as little as five applications. [3] However, controlled burning does nearly the opposite. While it still releases a small amount of pollution in the atmosphere, it is used to selectively burn vegetation that can lead to further wildfire hazards and occurrences, thus being beneficial in the long run. By incorporating the scientific methodology that can make the dates and methods of prescribed burning even more precise, we can be able to apply these indigenous practices in these areas to lessen the impact of wildfires before they even start. 

A large factor as to why this needs to be addressed is that wildfires also have a large economic impact. Firstly, the areas impacted by wildfires are those which historically have relied on the region’s climate and natural situation to produce a reliable living situation for a community.  This principle is also applicable to flooding in historic communities which have built themselves and their communities around the climate of the region. Secondly, these areas are also heavily reliant on these stable weather patterns for their economic livelihood. Drastic decrease or damage in housing that cannot be predicted or maintained from one year to the next can cause many unexpected needs for relocation and retreat, much like with flooding. 

The economic impact of this directly connects with the reinforcement of policies surrounding fire insurance in California and in Greece. Unlike flood insurance in California, fire insurance is covered by default by most insurance companies in the private market. [4] In Greece, both fire insurance and flood insurance are combined into this private market. Recently, however, there has been an increase in the rate of fire insurance in California due to the effects of climate change on the severity of damages from these fires. This is the result of a new economic implementation called the FAIR Plan. [5] This plan increases the overall cost of fire insurance because it goes through what is called a “shared market plan”, which is outside of standard insurance policies but is set up to benefit these properties in these at-risk areas by offering them more protection and funding in the case of wildlife emergencies. However, there are other concerns that may surround a program such as this. Since regulation of this additional funding is not managed by insurance companies and is instead a federal program, there is a chance that it may end up having the same problems with funding as national flood insurance, which was created as a government program but suffered a severe lack of funding due to other economic interventions and policies. Therefore, we need to create more effective plans and courses of action that do not necessarily involve insurance or federal programs. 

There are several policies that exist that can be implemented in both California and Greece to solve this issue. In my previous article surrounding the flooding in both of these regions, there are a few techniques that I mentioned for dealing with and adapting to these changes. These techniques are to Protect, Accommodate, and Retreat. To protect, infrastructure change is something that can definitely impact the way that wildfires are managed in a region. Making sure that homes are better equipped to deal with these fires and stricter land usage is something that can be done fairly easily. Making policies that are built on the idea of prescribed burning may require lobbying and persuading government officials, but can become effective and sustainable after implementation. On this note, there are several current policies that regulate building codes and land use. In the academic literature on wildfires, there currently exists a concept known as the Wildland-Urban Interface (WUI). [6] This is land that sits in between developed and undeveloped land. In California, areas that are placed near this fringe are disproportionately white and high-income, in contrast to areas that are more prone to flooding and other climate hazards. Although these affluent neighborhoods have land and greenspace, their planning is not utilized effectively to make them environmentally safe. When homes in this area are destroyed by fire, they are replaced with houses with an even larger lot size. This makes the new homes even more expensive, further driving segregation in these areas. Policymakers should disincentivize building large new homes in the WUI, as it puts a strain on public resources and makes the current situation worse.

In both California and Greece, changing the way that land is used, as well as building regulations, can work with accommodation in both of these two places. Practices such as prescribed burning and regulating the use of land, not letting vehicles idle, bonfires occur, or other fire hazards be present in certain areas when the land is most vulnerable to this type of burning. Secondly, reinforcing existing infrastructure with stricter regulations surrounding flammable materials would also be a policy of interest. If this could be mandated through federal and government regulations, regardless of the building, socioeconomic bracket, or geographical location, It could prove crucial to the security and stability of a community. [7]

Sometimes, infrastructure-based adaptation is not sufficient. In this case, we need to consider to what extent Managed Retreat, the gradual migration to different geographical areas of these communities, is useful. In this case, we need to consider the implications, both social and economic, of moving these communities. Cultural customs and adaptation that also leads to economic stability may change or be lost, and communities may have a difficult time adjusting to the new area with other communities. Also, areas that are less prone to wildfires may become overcrowded because of this migration, making this a less optimal solution to this problem. However, we need to still consider this as an element of a long-term solution to this Climate-induced change in livability.

In conclusion, wildfires are something that is being experienced in both California and Greece. Both of the regions need to take into account how wildfires occur and what factors can influence their increase. Extreme heat, lightning strikes, or other natural means of combustion, as well as misuse of land, can all contribute to wildfires, meaning that decision-makers need to look back to indigenous wildfire prevention practices and enact them with the scientific efficiency of the modern day. Placing emphasis on properly reinforcing building standards is something else that is vital to managing both the natural phenomenon of wildfires and the betterment of a community. This can be difficult since many of the areas that are prone to wildfires historically have been in regions that constitute the “Wildland-Urban Interface” between the region between western-colonial urban structures and the natural environment that have inefficient or unsafe infrastructure. With adequate enforcement of policy revisions within local and national governments, this change can become a reality. 

Works Cited:

[1] C2ES. (2021, May 20). Wildfires and Climate Change. Center for Climate and Energy Solutions.

[2] Sommer, L. (2020, August 24). To Manage Wildfire, California Looks To What Tribes Have Known All Along. NPR.

[3] Britannica, T. Editors of Encyclopaedia (2019, March 28). Slash-and-burn agriculture. Encyclopedia Britannica.

[4] Nieves, S. (2021, January 25). Does Homeowners Insurance Cover Fire? Policygenius.

[5] Wells Media Group, Inc. (2020, February 21). California FAIR Plan Can Offer Only Fire Insurance, Judge Says. Insurance Journal.

[6] American Society of Adaptation Professionals. (2021, March 10). Housing, Wildfires, Climate Migration and Managed Retreat. YouTube.

[7] Rafenberg, M. (2021, May 23). ‘Ecological disaster’ feared as Greece battles forest fire.

The Impacts of Sea Level Rise and Climate Change on California and Greece

The Impacts of Sea Level Rise and Climate Change on California and Greece

Marina Baracos

June 2nd, 2021

Sea level rise is defined as a climatically induced change of sea levels that can lead to flooding in high-risk areas. This change is caused by several different factors. The two main factors that will be highlighted in this article are climate change and land proximity to a body of water. Climate change causes an increase in sea level due to the retention of heat by carbon dioxide in the Earth’s atmosphere. The changes that happened during the 20th century led to a sea-level increase of 0.17±0.05m, according to observations made by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [1]. If this continues by 2100, the sea level is estimated to rise between 2 to 3.4 meters. These effects can already be seen, from changes in polar regions to the increase in floods. The aspect of floods is something that is very concerning for islands and peninsulas since these geographical regions do not have much of a “buffer” against any drastic flooding or change in land borders as a result of flooding.

This issue concerns Greece and California, two places distant in location but similar in climate. However, there are several main issues that affect both of these diverse regions. The first issue is that of population displacement. This is related to the coastal development and landscape of those regions. In numerous parts of Greece, communities have found ways to thrive off the coastal regions, including tourism. The beaches that we value as part of Greece’s natural beauty are at risk of being lost, leading to a socioeconomic deficit, displacement of families and businesses who have relied on the economic benefits of tourism, and the depletion of wildlife. However, this issue can lead to something with more sinister impacts for California and Greece is gentrification. Gentrification is the systematic removal of a certain population from an area due to economic and/or climate change. Historic communities are facing removal and displacement because of the respective value of land based on its geographical position. Families are fleeing these neighborhoods to move to areas of higher elevation and less flood risk. [2] Communities that have been established within a geographical area and that have brought cultural diversity, tourism, and economic attention, as well as, are facing separation. Therefore, it is in turn, much needed that we ensure that we are preserving these high-risk areas via active intervention with both policy and infrastructure change.

Due to these aforementioned disadvantages, sea-level rise is also a large risk in property investments. In the United States, there is a specific way to prevent flood-related disasters from being unrecoverable. This is due to the national program called the National Flood Insurance Program. This program was created in 1968 by Congress to help with the cost of damage created by floods. [3] However, this process still has systematic flaws, since the claims process and the process for applying for this type of insurance are time-consuming and inefficient. In addition, flood insurance is not part of a default homeowners policy, meaning that many people have to go out of their way to apply for flood insurance. Furthermore, some homes are not required to purchase flood insurance since they were built before it was mandatory to do so. However, this age and lack of floodproofing design makes them more vulnerable. The main issue with this federally implemented flood insurance is that it formulates itself as separate from all other buildings and prevents the development of personal flood insurance plans. Instead, the U.S Government should focus on creating a program that is integrated into normal home insurance policies. This type of insurance is something that has prevented the development of personal flood insurance plans in the United States. In Europe, particularly Greece, a federal flood insurance program does not exist. Instead, most flood insurance (<=50%) exists under the private market, meaning that more development based on local resources and regulations can occur. [4] Therefore, Greece is different from California in this aspect in the sense that poorer flood insurance coverage is offered in California and in the United States in general.

Based on the evidence gathered throughout these research studies and observation of these climate-related issues, there are several methods and measures that can be taken to aid California and Greece. Three strategies that are outlined within the article “A Guide to Sea Level Rise and Housing Adaptation in California” are Protect, Accommodate, and Retreat, respectfully. [5] Protecting an area is the first step to preventing devastation due to Sea Level rise. We can change the infrastructure surrounding these areas with structures called seawalls, which can redirect and prevent floodwaters from causing damage to these regions. Secondly, the next technique that can be used is to accommodate. This means that cities and other geographical regions can change and accommodate their land use based on the patterns of sea-level rise and flooding. There are numerous techniques currently implemented in Europe for these issues, such as the phenomenon of “Living with Rivers”. This design principle incorporates rising sea levels or changes in bodies of water to existing infrastructure, rather than fighting against such changes [6]. I feel that this is something that can be incorporated in both the cases of California and Greece, along with better policies to protect infrastructure and homes that are in a preexisting area. Finally, the third strategy for rising sea levels is to retreat. This often comes in the form of managed retreat, which is actively moving at-risk communities or infrastructure away form the rising shoreline. While this strategy is used as a last resort, it still requires careful calculation and planning to ensure that effective rebuilding of these cities and towns can take place afterward on this new land. However, one con to this approach is the displacement of native communities and infrastructure.

In conclusion, sea level rise is something that can affect multiple facets of a community. Not only does this affect the socio-economic landscape of a region, but the environmental cost at stake amplifies this prominent issue. Through the use of modeling and predictive technology, we are able to determine an effective solution for a given geographic region. Coastal land use may differ slightly based on geographic region, but these principles can still be applied to both California and Greece. Firstly, what needs to be addressed for any of these regions is that of an effective policy concerning flood insurance and planning. Without proper insurance for our pre-existing buildings and structures, there is no way that we can properly address and take care of what is already constructed. Therefore, we need to revise Flood Insurance Policies to be more encompassing of older buildings without a federal program. We also need to place emphasis on different solutions such as Protection and Accommodation. These solutions can revise existing infrastructure without separating communities, unlike retreat, which is something that we should avoid and use only as a last resort.

Works Cited:

[1] Klaoudatos DS, Kokkali A, Conides A (2015). Estimates of the Economic Impacts of Sea Level Rise on Paros and Naxos Islands (Cyclades Archipelago Greece). J Aquac Mar Biol 2(2): 00020. DOI: 10.15406/jamb.2015.02.00020

[2] WPBT2. (2020, January 6). Is Climate Gentrification Happening in Miami? YouTube.

[3] CNBC. (2020, November 18). Why Flood Insurance Is Failing The U.S. YouTube.

[4] Bouwer, Laurens & Huitema, Dave. (2007). Adaptive flood management: The role of insurance and compensation in Europe. 24-26. ResearchGate.

[5] Gendler, I. (2020, September 15). A Guide to Sea Level Rise and Housing Adaptation in California. Abundant Housing LA.

[6] Görlach, B. (n.d.). Economic Evaluation of Flood Management Measures. Ecologic Institute.

[7] Press, T. A. (2020, September 19). Greek flooding leaves 2 dead, 1 missing; 600 others rescued. The Ledger.