“How can mines operate without a land-cover?”
In the past, mines were made by digging individual holes under the surface of the ground. But with the advance of new technology, this may no longer be necessary for regions where ore is close to the surface. The surface of mineral areas can now be blasted out through dynamite and then carved through by giant cranes. This leaves a giant hole in which minerals can be easily accessible. Although this Open-Pit Mining technique might be economically efficient in many cases, it produces large amounts of environmental damage. Rare Earth Minerals are often excavated through open-pit mining.