“How can we quantify what is produced by critical infrastructure systems?”
Critical Infrastructure Systems are one the most important bedrocks of society. However, how can we apply a metric to quantify its outputs? Well, by applying something known as Resilience Performance, we can evaluate a system’s output. Examples of Resilience Performance include energy produced by solar panels or their fault tolerance. Resilience performance is commonly used to evaluate Resilience Capabilities.
“How can we measure how effective resilience capabilities are organized?”
Resilience Capacities are necessary to organize Resilience Inputs. But some have more flexibility than others. So how can we apply a metric to this? Well, by using Resilience Capabilities we can evaluate the effectiveness of how the resiliency response can be carried out, such as how the ability to repair damaged power lines.
“How can we organize resiliency inputs?”
Resiliency Inputs are the foundation for creating long-lasting critical infrastructure systems. But without any form of organization, they’re quite useless. This is where Resilience Capacities come in. Resiliency Inputs to Resiliency Capacities is like bones to a skeleton. Examples of Resiliency Capacities include emergency response teams of repair workers to downed power lines after a natural disaster.
“What are the building blocks of Resilience?”
With the ever-changing climate, critical infrastructure systems are going to have to become more resilient. To develop this, engineers and policymakers have developed a series of metrics to quantify the resilience of such systems. The most fundamental of which is the Resiliency Inputs to a system. Inputs are the like the bones of a skeleton. Although they compose the physical structure, on their own they are ineffective. Examples of Resilience Inputs in energy systems are budgets, equipment, spare parts, and personnel to support recovery operations.
“How can we calculate the specific energy for humid air?”
Air can vary a lot in both temperature and humidity. And sometimes, we would like to know the specific energy for humid air under constant pressure at a reference temperature ignoring the effects of condensation. To do this, we can calculate by the Sigma Heat S = 17.86 (kj/kg) + 1.05 (kj/kg)*t + W(2501 (kj/kg) + 1.884(kj/kg)*t), where t is the dry-bulb temperature of the air (in °C), and W is the specific humidity of the air (no unit). The Sigma Heat equation is commonly used in mining engineering to calculate the temperature regulation of mine air.
A New Guide For High-Performance Energy-Efficient Buildings in India
“Is there a new guide for energy efficient buildings in India?”
India is a massive country. With an area larger than the Arabian Peninsula and a population size equal to four times the United States, it definitely has something to say about size. And every single one of those people probably lives, works, and plays in some sort of building. That must be a lot of buildings. And to keep everyone cool and productive in the hot Indian Climate, a lot of energy is going to go towards HVAC and Lighting Systems. Combine this with a large population growth and intense economic development, and it looks like more and more people are going to be in these buildings.
So like any nation with these factors, India should be looking to see how it could supply this future growth in energy. After much studying into this issue, the nation of the Ganges has decided that one of its primary directives must be to vastly increase energy efficiency in the building sector. After working with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, the same center that produced The Rosenfeld Effect, a new Guide For High-Performance Energy-Efficient Buildings in India has been produced. This series of documents delves into how India can achieve its climate change reduction goals with regards to the building sector by addressing its unique workforce, construction activity, culture, and climate.
Bottom line, I recommend that everyone in the energy space should take at least a few peaks at it right here!
“How can we make nuclear reactors that produce more fissionable material then it consumes?”
Nuclear reactors are commonly thought of as non-renewable resources. However, if we invest in technology the resight way, then we can do some very creative things. Since flying neutrons can be absorbed by non-fissionable Uranium 238 and be turned into fissionable Plutonium 239, placing these with Uranium 235 can allow for more fissionable material to be created over time. Reactors that use this process are called Breeder Reactors and have been developed in France.
“How can we quantify a system’s resilience ability?”
With the ascent of climate change, cities all over the world will have to change their infrastructure to be resilient against the winds of climate change. However, how can we quantify how resilient a given system is? Well, by breaking down an infrastructural system into multiple components (namely inputs, capacities, capabilities, performance, and outcomes), we can apply Resiliency Metrics to each to evaluate a system’s readiness. Resiliency metrics can be applied to any type of infrastructure, whether it be power systems, gas pipelines, or transportation networks.
Climate Change Resilience
“How can humanity adapt to climate change?”
Sustainability is the overarching goal of many people who work in energy, climate, and infrastructure. However, we must also take into account the concept of Climate Change Resilience. Simply put, Climate Change Resilience is the measure of a system’s capacity to withstand the increased external stresses of climate change. Take for example Puerto Rico during Hurricane Maria. When the extreme weather knocked down transmission lines and diesel plants, those who were dependent on them lost all power. However, people who had installed solar panels and microgrids were able to continue to use their electrical appliances despite the tumultuous events. Climate Change Resilience is used to quantify how much adaptation an area needs to do before becoming climate ready. By having infrastructure ready for the climate chaotic future, we can ensure human civilization a safe and resilient time on this planet.