How to calculate change in entropy
“How can we calculate the change in entropy for a thermodynamic process?”
It is well known that for all thermodynamic processes, there is a corresponding increase in entropy in the entire system. However, how can we quantitatively measure such a change? Well, after many years of research, physicists and engineers have been able to come up with an equation which states that the change in entropy for a reversible process is equal to the time integral of change of heat divided by the initial temperature, or (delta)s=integral(dq/T). From this, we can derive that for an isothermal expansion or contraction, the equation will be (delta)S=nRln(vf/v0), and (delta)d=-nRln(pf_p0), while in cooling or heating a system it will be (delta)s=ncln(tf/t0) and for a phase transition it will be (delta)s=(delta)h/T.