Month: April 2016

Dark matter

Dark matter

Dark matter                            04/30/16

 

Theoretical physics has recently run into a startling contradiction. When analyzing mutually spinning galaxies, we find that the force needed to hold them together is far less than what their visible mass is composed of! What if it’s possible that there might be some possible extra mass that is not reactive to light? This possibility of mass is known as Dark matter. Dark matter is thought to comprimes as much as much as 85.0% of the universe, and what is most interesting is that it does not react with the electromagnetic spectrum.

The age of the universe

The age of the universe

             The age of the universe            04/30/16

 

Have you ever pondered how old is the universe that we inhabit? Believe it or not, some of the greatest minds of the human species have devoted their entire lives to that very question. There are two methods for finding the age. The first method involves some very intuitive reasoning. We know a few basic facts about the universe; first of all, galaxies are moving away from eachother at a similar velocity (adjusted for the acceleration of the universe, and second of all, we know (or at least we think we know, remember science is all about hypothesis) that at the beginning of the universe all matter was concentrated in a single point. Therefore, by measuring the speeds and the distance of galaxies, we can solve for the time elapsed in the universe. It’s like trying to solve for the time of a race if you know that everyone had a constant velocity and had a beginning spot! The second, more technical method involves analyzing globular clusters around the milky way and doing some really cool astrophysics stuff with them. By averaging both measurements, we get a value of 13.772 billion years! (with an uncertainty of around 59 million years, that’s science for you!)

Hall effect and applications

Hall effect and applications

Hall effect and applications                   04/29/30

 

Have you ever wondered what would happen if a magnetic field interacted with a conductive plate? If so, then you have just independently postulated the hall effect. Suppose we have a current going through a conductive plate. As one know, there is a net movement of electrons within the material. Also known is that a magnetic field will cause a deflection of charge, it’s direction depending on it’s charge. So wouldn’t it be logical that if a magnetic field were to come in contact with the plate which contains a net movement of charge, That the charges would become polarized to each side of the plate? And as a second order effect, the new disposition of charges would cause a voltage to be created?

 

One very important application of the hall effect to the field of Mechanical Engineering is known at the Wheel speed sensor. If we put such a device parallel to a rotating wheel, then the rotation of the  gears of the wheel would induce a magnetic field. If one is able to measure the changing magnetic field, then it would only be logical that we would be able to obtain a measurement for the RPM

Quantum tunneling

Quantum tunneling

   Quantum tunneling        04/29/16

 

One of the most interesting effects in the universe is known as Quantum tunneling. In Quantum mechanics, it is possible for a particle to pass through a barrier without having enough internal classical energy! To illustrate, let’s use a ball being rolled up a hill an analogy. Under classical mechanics, a ball (particle) can only roll up a hill if it has enough energy to surmount it (break the barrier. In quantum conditions however, there is a certain percentage that the ball can absorb energy from it’s surroundings to finish the job! What is extremely extremely fascinating is that water has been shown to exhibit this effect! Imagine the possible consequences, such as water being able to pour through a substance without needing to cross classical barriers.

Microscopic scale

Microscopic scale

  Microscopic scale               04/28/16

 

One of the most bewildering properties of the material world is that of the microscopic scale. Objects in the microscopic scale are often unable to be viewed by the human eye, and require advanced instruments such as microscopes to be observed. If one goes miniscule enough, then the realm of quantum mechanics will come in to effect, heavily distorting all known conceptions of reality.

 

Macroscopic scale

Macroscopic scale

Macroscopic scale        04/27/16

 

In the study of thermodynamics, the Macroscopic scale is defined as the scale in which phenomena can be seen by the naked eye. This stands in contrast to objects on the microscopic scale, which requires the use of advanced equipment to observe. Examples of phenomena on the macroscopic scale include newtonian objects, smoke, and quite frankly everyday life.

Fundamental matrix

Fundamental matrix

Fundamental matrix  04/26/16

 

A Fundamental matrix is a very interesting application f matrixes. Suppose you have a matrix solution x(t) y(t) = C1[A(t),C(t)]+ C2[B(t),D(t)], then you put the following into a 2×2 matrix (t)=[A(t),B(t),C(t),D(t)]and multiply by the inverse matrix evaluated at 0, or (0)-1